Frequently Ocurring Pairs and the N choose k problem

This post explores what ${N\choose k}$ means.

I was tasked a few days ago to identify the pairs of elements that occur in at least X lists data. So how could we go about doing this?

Perhaps the more intuitive implementation (and computationally problematic) would be to find all possible pairs of elements and make a running tally of how many times each pair has occurred. But for large data, this could be a problem for the following reason:

Supposing each list in the data contained 100 elements, there would be ${100\choose 2}$ different possible combinations. ${100\choose 2}$ is a spiffy way of asking, “How many 2-element pairs can I make with these 100 elements,” or perhaps more directly, “How many 2-element combinations can I make with 100 elements?” In math terms, you say there are “N choose k,” or “100 choose 2” combinations.

Thinking about this, you may have realized that for a large number of elements, the number of pairs gets large quickly. Lets take a look at what ${N\choose k}$ means mathematically (…I just got LaTeX working with markdown, so bear with me!)

Let’s break down what this means. Taking a permutation is like grouping the elements in different orderings. So, an array like, $[a,b,c,d]$, would have these 3-element pairs (I chose 3 because it’s larger than 2). Notice that if we only looked at the first 2 elements, we see that each pair occurs multiple times. In other words, if we group the (k+i)-element permutations into k-element permutations, we have lots of duplicates!

$$ \begin{array}{}\\\ abc & abd \\\ acb & acd \\\ adb & adc \\\ bac & bad \\\ bca & bcd \\\ bda & bdc \\\ \ldots \\\ \end{array} $$ $\overrightarrow{}$ $ \begin{array}{}\\\ ab \\\ ac \\\ ad \\\ ba \\\ bc \\\ bd \\\ \ldots \\\ \end{array}$

This idea of grouping elements is cool, because now we can see that 2-element permutations are a subset of 3-element permutations. It also happens that the $(n-k)!$ term in the denominator of the “n choose k” formula above deduplicates these permutations. Let’s see how. First, look at total possible number of permutations (ie k=n, or “n-element permutations”). Second, find the number of 2-element permutations. Last, we can generalize a formula for finding the number of k-element permutations

  1. Finding the number of permutations for an array of size n=4: Conceptually, I like to think of this as recursively counting all the groups and groups of groups (etc) of elements. What I mean by this is that if have our 4 element array, there would be a maximum of 4 1-element structures ($[a], [b], [c], [d]$), each of which expands to 3 2-element structures (ie for $a$: $[ab, ac, ad]$), each of which expands to 2 3-element structures (ie for $ab$: $[abc, abd]$), etc. Applying this concept mathematically, the initial array has 4 (1-letter) groups, each of which expands to 3 2-letter groups. Therefore, the total number of groups is $4 * 3 = 12$. Each of those 3 groups further expands into 2 3-letter subgroups, giving us $4 * 3 * 2 * 1$. Therefore, the number of permutations for an array of size n is $n!$.

  2. By the logic above, finding the number of 2-element permutations in an array of size n=4 is super simple! Each of 1-element structures expands 3 2-element structures, giving us a total of $4 * 3 = 12$ two element structures.

  3. Generalizing steps 1 and 2, we can now find the number of k-element permutations in an array of size n!

There’s one more step - the conversion of permutations to combinations. Looking back all the 2 element permutations, we see that $ab$ and $ba$ are distinct pairs. Permutations care about order. Combinations, on the other hand, don’t; $ab$ and $ba$ are the same thing. In much the same way that we de-duplicated our permutations, now we must de-duplicate again. The logic you use here is very similar. Basically, the number of duplicate combinations for all k-element permutations in an array is the number of permutations for an array of length k.

At the beginning of this post, I identified the N choose k problem as a reason why certain computations were inefficient. To that point, check out how quickly the number of 2-element combinations increases for different sizes of n!

N Num combinations
1004950
20019900
30044850

For large n, the number of 2-element pairs we’d end up counting would be impractically large. So large, in fact, that counting all those pairs is eventually impractical to fit in, say 4 or 8 gb of ram. So how can we count frequently occurring k-element pairs? In the next blog post, we’ll explore answers to this question by learning about the Probability Mass Function of a binomial distribution and doing some probability! See you then.

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